细嘴兀鹫在

细嘴兀鹫(Slender-billed Vulture, Gyps tenuirostris)是姑且使用的译名。在“世界鸟类分类与分布名录”里面沿用旧分类法,把它归到印度兀鹫(Indian Vulture, Gyps indicus)里面。

细嘴兀鹫是90年代以来数量急剧减少,列为极危鸟类。这是近年第一次在东南亚找到它的证据。要是保护得宜,可能会成为亚洲保护兀鹫的一个重要基地。

细嘴兀鹫近年在中印的领土争议区“阿鲁纳恰尔邦”(即麦克马洪线以南的地域)也有分布纪录。严格来说可算是中国分布鸟种之一,而且说不定在西藏南部、云南西部仍然有少量残存。

http://www.birdlife.org/news/news/2007/02/slender-billed_vulture_cambodia.html

Slender-billed Vulture nests found in Cambodia: a first for South-East Asia

15-02-2007

The discovery of South-East Asia’s only known Slender-billed Vulture Gyps tenuirostris breeding colony has highlighted further Cambodia’s role as a stronghold for Asia’s plummeting vulture populations.

Cambodian conservationists found five nests in the Seasan Important Bird Area (IBA) whilst undertaking surveys of birds near the Mekong river in Cambodia’s Stung Treng Province.

“We discovered the nest on top of a hill where two other vulture species were also found,” said Song Chansocheat, of the Ministry of Environment/WCS Cambodia Programme. “Amazingly, there were also a host of other globally threatened species of birds and primates. It’s a very special place.”

“It’s an important discovery, particularly because it’s the first of its kind in South-East Asia.” said Jonathan C. Eames, Programme Manager for BirdLife International in Indochina.

Slender-billed Vulture Gyps tenuirostris was once common in parts of South and South-East Asia but in recent years the population has declined sharply, some estimates suggesting by as much as 99%.

Veterinary use of Diclofenac, a drug used to treat cattle, has been the driving force behind the dramatic vulture declines seen in South Asia. However, use of the drug, now being phased out across the region, appears non-existent in Cambodia. As a result the Kingdom is now an important stronghold for vultures in the region – as long as conservation work can ensure that populations are adequately protected.

“Even without the shadow of Diclofenac, vultures in Cambodia share other threats like persecution and particularly, a lack of adequate food sources in the wild – itself a symptom of Asia’s disappearing megafauna [large prey].” said Bou Vorsak, Acting Programme Manager at the BirdLife Cambodia Programme. “Vulture conservation is therefore dependent on finding out which areas are important to vultures and taking steps, with local communities and provincial governments, to ensure they are adequately conserved.”

The Cambodia Vulture Conservation Programme has been working to promote scientific research, with efforts on-the-ground to protect sites and to raise awareness of vultures as important aspects of Asian biodiversity. One of the most significant outcomes has been the use of ‘vulture restaurants’ – purposely placed dead livestock – as a means of attracting vultures to allow project staff to survey and monitor populations. The exercise is also an important opportunity to provide supplementary food for the vultures, which appears to be the main limiting factor on vulture populations.

“It’s entirely possible that the supplementary food sources of the nearby vulture restaurants have directly boosted the reproductive success of Slender-billed Vultures at this new nest site.” commented Vorsak.

The Cambodia Vulture Conservation Project, is a collaborative project of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Ministry of Environment, BirdLife International Cambodia Programme, the Wildlife Conservation Society Cambodia Programme, and the Worldwide Fund for Nature Cambodia Programme. The project has been supported by the Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund and the RSPB (BirdLife in the UK).

Simba 2007-2-19 16:55

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Simba 2007-3-30 21:18

可喜的下回再续

兀鹫食堂的效果。大锅饭果然有好处。

http://www.birdlife.org/news/news/2007/03/vulture_restaurants_diclofenac.html

Vulture restaurants can reduce diclofenac deaths

20-03-2007

Providing regular and reliable supplies of uncontaminated carcases is a well-established tool in vulture conservation. Among their many applications, vulture restaurants are used to provide a safe food source in areas where carcasses are commonly baited with poisons.

A team from the Peregrine Fund set out to find whether vulture restaurants could be used in the Indian subcontinent to reduce exposure to the veterinary anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Recent catastrophic declines in three Gyps species, Slender-billed Gyps tenuirostris, Indian G. indicus and White-rumped (Oriental White-backed) Vulture Gyps bengalensis have been attributed to the toxic effects of the drug upon birds which have fed on treated livestock. Affected vultures die of visceral gout.

Their findings are described in the current issue of Bird Conservation International. [1]

The restaurant was established at the White-rumped Vulture colony at Toawala, in Punjab province, Pakistan. The vultures were offered the carcases of donkeys, purchased locally and held for a week to ensure that any diclofenac residues had been eliminated.

Mean daily mortality in the colony when carcases were provided was 0.072 birds per day (8 birds in 111 days), compared with 0.387 birds per day (41 birds in 106 days) during non-provisioning control periods.

The researchers collected 50 dead adult and sub-adult vultures during the study period. Visceral gout, indicative of renal failure possibly due to diclofenac poisoning, was found in 29 of the 30 dead vultures that were available for necropsy.

At least five vultures were found dead with visceral gout while the restaurant was operating. “Even under optimum conditions it is not possible to eliminate diclofenac exposure entirely where alternative carcass sources are readily available,” the authors assert.

The authors conclude that restaurants can reduce, but not eliminate, diclofenac exposure. “Supplementary feeding may prove to be a useful management tool for slowing declines locally in the short term,” until diclofenac can be withdrawn from veterinary use.

Education of veterinarians and livestock owners to avoid treatment of terminally ill livestock, or to bury or burn carcasses of recently treated livestock, may also be helpful. Otherwise, “extinction is inevitable in all populations foraging in areas where diclofenac is in veterinary use and treated carcasses become vulture food at sufficient frequency to cause deaths and negative population growth.”

[1] Vulture restaurants and their role in reducing diclofenac exposure in Asian vultures, MARTIN GILBERT, RICHARD T. WATSON, SHAKEEL AHMED, MUHAMMAD ASIM and JEFF A. JOHNSON,  Bird Conservation International (2007) 17:1–16.